The Pesach Seder 

During the course of the evening you will have:

  • four cups of wine
  • veggies dipped in saltwater
  • flat, dry cracker-like bread called matzah
  • bitter herbs, often horseradish (without additives) and romaine lettuce, dipped into charoset (a paste of nuts, apples, pears and wine)
  • a festive meal that may contain time-honored favorites, like chicken soup and gefilte fish

Each item has its place in a 15-step choreographed combination of tastes, sounds, sensations and smells that have been with the Jewish people for millennia.


What Do We Use?

  • ceremonial foods are all arranged on a platter, called a ka’arah or Seder plate. There may be one ka’arah for the entire Seder, or several.
  • The procedure is all laid out in a book called a Haggadah. Although the text is in Hebrew (with a sprinkling of Aramaic), it is perfectly acceptable to read the Haggadah in translation if you don’t understand Hebrew.

Print a Haggadah for your Seder

Why the Seder Is Important

At the Seder, every person should feel as if he or she were going out of Egypt. We begin with the story of our patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and recount the Jewish people’s descent into Egypt, recalling their suffering and persecution. We are with them as G‑d sends the ten plagues to punish Pharaoh and his nation, and follow along as they leave Egypt and cross the Sea of Reeds. We witness the miraculous hand of G‑d as the waters part, allowing the Israelites to pass, then return to inundate the Egyptian legions.

As we eat bitter foods of affliction and poverty, the Exodus becomes a reality—as real as the festive meal and celebratory toasts that follow.

More freedom-related thoughts

Here are the 15 steps of the Seder (which means "order"), with a bit of explanation:

1. Kadesh—the Benediction

The Seder service begins with the recitation of kiddush, proclaiming the holiness of the holiday. This is said while holding a cup of wine, the first of the four cups we will drink (while reclining) throughout the Seder.

The Four Cups of Wine

Why four cups? The Torah uses four expressions of freedom or deliverance in connection with our liberation from Egypt.1 Some link them to the four great merits the children of Israel had in exile: (1) They did not change their Hebrew names; (2) they continued to speak their own language, Hebrew; (3) They remained highly moral; (4) They remained loyal to one another.

Wine is used because it is a symbol of joy and happiness.

More reasons for the four cups

Why We Recline

When drinking the four cups and eating the matzah, we lean on our left side to accentuate the fact that we are free people. In ancient times only free people had the luxury of reclining while eating.

2. Urchatz—Washing

We wash our hands in the usual, ritually prescribed manner, as is done before a meal, but without the customary blessing.

The next step in the Seder, Karpas, requires dipping food into water. Jewish law specifies that certain wet foods be eaten with a utensil or that one’s hands be purified first by washing. On the eve of the Seder, we choose the less common (but more ideal) observance to arouse our children’s curiosity.

Step-by-step washing instructions

3. Karpas—the “Appetizer”

A small piece of vegetable (an onion or boiled potato in Chabad tradition) is dipped into salt water and eaten (after reciting the blessing over vegetables).

Dipping the karpas in salt water (after having washed our hands) is part of a series of acts intended arouses the child’s curiosity.

The Hebrew word karpas (parsley), when read backwards, alludes to the backbreaking labor performed by the 600,000 Jews in Egypt. (The last letter, samech, has the numerical equivalent of 60, representing 60 times 10,000, while the remaining three Hebrew letters spell perech, “hard work.”)

The meaning behind the karpas

4. Yachatz—Breaking the Matzah

The middle matzah on the Seder plate is broken in two. The smaller part of the middle matzah is returned to the Seder plate. This broken middle matzah, the “bread of poverty,” remains visible as we tell the story of Exodus (see step 5) and will be eaten shortly thereafter. The larger piece is put aside for later use as the afikoman (see step 12). This unusual action of breaking the matzah not only attracts the child’s attention once again, but also recalls G‑d’s splitting of the Sea of Reeds to allow the children of Israel to cross on dry land.

A deep lesson from the broken matzah

5. Maggid—the Haggadah

At this point, the poor are invited to join the Seder. The Seder tray is moved aside, a second cup of wine is poured, and the child, who by now is bursting with curiosity, asks the time-honored question:

Mah nishtanah ha-lailah hazeh mikol ha-leilot? Why is this night different from all other nights?” Why only matzah? Why the dipping? Why the bitter herbs? Why are we relaxing and reclining as if we were kings?

The child’s questioning triggers one of the most significant elements of Passover, which is the highlight of the Seder ceremony: reading the Haggadah, which tells the story of the Exodus from Egypt. The answer includes a brief review of history, a brief narrative of how how Abraham rejected idolatry and entered a pact with G‑d, a description of the suffering imposed upon the Israelites, a listing of the plagues visited on the Egyptians, and an enumeration of the miracles performed by the Almighty to redeem His people. We conclude by thanking G‑d for the having set us free from Egypt and a prayer for the Final Redemption.

Brush up with the Four Questions trainer

6. Rachtzah—Washing Before the Meal

After concluding the first part of the Haggadah by drinking the second cup of wine (while reclining), the hands are washed again, this time with the customary blessings, as is usually done before eating bread.

Step-by-step washing instructions

7-8. Motzi Matzah—We Eat the Matzah

Taking hold of the three matzahs (with the broken one between the two whole ones), recite the customary blessing before bread. Then, letting the bottom matzah drop back onto the plate, and holding the top whole matzah with the broken middle one, recite the special blessing “al achilat matzah.” Then break a bit of the upper matzah and at least one ounce from the middle matzah (ideally an ounce from each), and eat the two pieces together while reclining.

What Is Matzah?

9. Maror—the Bitter Herbs

Take at least one ounce of the bitter herbs. Dip it in the  charoset, then shake the latter off and make the blessing “al achilat maror.” Eat without reclining.

What is maror?

10. Korech—the Hillel Sandwich

In keeping with the practice of Hillel, the great Talmudic sage, a sandwich of matzah and maror is eaten. Break two pieces off the bottom matzah, which should be at least one ounce together. Again, take at least one ounce of bitter herbs and dip them in the charoset, which is shaken off. Place this between the two pieces of matzah, say “kein asah Hillel…,” and eat the sandwich while reclining.

Learn more about the korech

11. Shulchan Orech—the Passover Feast

The holiday meal is now served. We begin the meal by eating the hard-boiled egg dipped into salt water. Traditionally associated with mourning, the egg reminding us that our meal lacks the sacrificial lamb.

Note: The zeroa (the leg of lamb or chicken leg or neck on the Seder plate), is not eaten at the Seder.

Passover stories to share at the meal

12. Tzafun—Out of Hiding

After the meal, the half-matzah that had been “hidden” and set aside for the  afikoman (“dessert”) is taken out and eaten. It symbolizes the Paschal lamb, which our ancestors ate at the end of their Passover Seders.

Everyone should eat at least 1½ ounces of matzah, reclining, before midnight. After eating the afikoman, we do not eat or drink anything except for the two remaining cups of wine.

13. Berach—Blessings After the Meal

A third cup of wine is filled and Grace After Meals is recited. After the Grace, we recite the blessing over wine and drink the third cup while reclining.

Now we fill the cup of Elijah and our own cups with wine. We open the door and recite the passage inviting the Prophet Elijah, the harbinger of the coming of Moshiach, our righteous Messiah.

Why we open the door for Elijah

14. Hallel—Songs of Praise

At this point, having recognized the Almighty and His unique guidance of the Jewish people, we go still further and sing His praises as L‑rd of the entire universe.

After reciting the Hallel, we again recite the blessing over wine and drink the fourth cup, reclining.

15. Nirtzah—Acceptance

Having carried out the Seder service properly, we are sure that it has been well received by the Almighty. We then say “Leshanah haba’ah b’Yerushalayim—Next year in Jerusalem.”


Will you be leading a Seder? Check out our quick Seder Leader's cheat sheet.




1. See Exodus 6:6–7.

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